Philosophy and logic is one of the general studies universities in Nigeria treat in year one.  From here, Law of thoughts are not exclusive from the course called philosophy and logic. It’s can of confusing which need clearification for students to understand properly.

Law of Thoughts.

The history of human inquiry is the history of humankind’s quest for meaning. There cannot be any meaning created action without an idea, a principle or thought. All ideals, concepts, precepts, notions, principle and rules of different areas of knowledge mist not be contrary to any of the thought, which are also known as primary laws of thought. There’s no discipline partaining to the underlying principles and rules opposed to primary laws of thought.

Laws of thought are;

  1. The law of identity
  2. The law of excluded middle
  3. The law of non-contradiction

Let’s further know the logical forms of the three laws for easy correlation of ideals

The Law of Identity

This state that if  any statement is true then it’s true. A true statement is implies for example something cannot be in existence and not in existence at the same time. Being cannot misidentify itself. Being is identical with itself. The law of thought can be schematically represent as P is P.

The Law of Excluded Middle

This simply state that statement is either true or false. It is also means that statement cannot be true and false. The value of the statement can be indifferent to any quality, there cannot be a true and false to the same question with the same significantion. A statement or answer is either affirmative or negative. Example;

  1. All men are mortals
  2. No saints are immortal persons
  3. Some pauper are egotist
  4. Some S are not P
  5. Obi is a truthful person

Law of Non-contradiction

These state that a statement cannot be both truth and falsest the same time. What this self contradictory statement implies, is that every statement is both true and false is false. Example A mango tree cannot be a cashew tree. It is either a mango tree or a cashew tree and noth both. Human experience has not given us an instant to say that a tree can bear mango fruits as well as cashew fruits. Is to think or imagine such a possibilities outside  the confines of human experience.


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